Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels rose again in 2023, reaching record levels and impeding progress to limit global warming, according to scientists.

According to early analysis, there was a 1.1% increase in levels, compared to 2022, resulting in 36.8 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel emissions and a total of 40.9 billion tonnes when including all sources.

The findings were reported in the annual Global Carbon Budget, which looks at how much carbon was added to the atmosphere and how much was removed and stored on land and in the ocean.

Meanwhile, a study by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration suggests that the oceans could be losing some of their carbon storage capacity, due to the levels they have already accumulated and the amount that is being transferred from the water’s surface to the ocean floor could also be decreasing.